August 27, 1832 – The La Crosse bands of Winnebago bring the Prophet and Black Hawk to Prairie du Chien as prisoners of war.
September 10-14, 1832 – Winnebago chiefs and head men number around 40 and are anxious to clear the nation of accusations of complicity in the Black Hawk War. Scott and Reynolds are told that the only Winnebago who fought with the Sacs were those related to the Sacs. The commissioners argue for land cession in the treaty negotiation.
September, 1832 – Juliette Kinzie writes that the Winnebago had failed to plant gardens the summer before and many are starving. Game is scarce this winter and many of the Winnebago subsist “for weeks on soup made of the bark of the slippery elm or stewed acorns”.
April 29, 1833 – Council at Four Lakes (present day Madison, WI), Governor Dodge tells the Winnebago in the Rock River (ceded) area they have to move by June 1, 1833. Most plan to move near Baraboo, Devil’s Lake and Sauk Prairie. White Crow states, “…many provisions have been promised but few delivered”.
Summer, 1833 – General Dodge’s soldiers force the Winnebago north of the Wisconsin River. Most bands settle at Sauk Prairie and on the Baraboo River.
June 10, 1833 – About 60 lodges remain in the ceded area.
1834 – Small pox affects the Winnebago again. They flee in all directions, spreading the epidemic further. About one-fourth of the entire Winnebago population perishes with the total dead being 1,000- 1,500.
Upwards of 3,000 Winnebago men, women, and children come to Portage for their annuity payment.
February, 1834 – Whirling Thunder sends a message to Lewis Cass regarding the unfulfilled promises made during the treaty negotiations at Rock Island in 1832.
1835 – Winnebago Mission in Wisconsin closes.
U.S. agent finds about 30 Winnebago families farming on the Baraboo River.
September, 1835 – Whirling Thunder sends a letter to Governor Lewis Cass asking that he be allowed to go to Washington to talk to President Andrew Jackson directly about the problems the Winnebagos are facing.
1836 – Reverend Samuel Mazzuchelli correspond with George Wallace Jones regarding the Winnebago Mission and School in Wisconsin Territory.
April 26, 1836 – Wisconsin Territory and Territorial Government are established. Almost 900,000 acres of land are sold.
October 15, 1836 – Waukon Decorah eloquently addresses Governor Dodge and refuses to be relocated southwest of the Missouri River to live, “among nations that we are extremely unacquainted with”.
1837 – Governor Dodge visits the Winnebago at the Portage and invites them to send a delegation to Washington. They ask if they would be expected to cede their lands.
Traders took $200,000 of the Winnebago treaty settlement money under the pretense of “claims”.
September, 1837 – Thomas A.B. Boyd, newly appointed agent for the Winnebagos meets with the Portage chiefs in council. He tells them the Great Father invited them to Washington, “for no other motive than their welfare”. The Winnebago object to the trip until after their annuities are paid.
November 1, 1837 – Treaty of 1837 signed in Washington, D.C. Most Winnebago who went are young people, with no authority to negotiate a treaty. The Winnebago understood that they have 8 years until their removal from Wisconsin, but in reality the treaty states 8 months. All land east of the Mississippi River is ceded to the government.
June 12, 1838 – A delegation of Winnebago go to Captain Low at Ft. Winnebago to protest their newest treaty. Black Decorah calls Agent Boyd “the fool agent” and tells Low they were taken to Washington and kept drunk.
July 1838 – Dandy meets in council with Major W. Cobbs of Ft. Winnebago. He requests that Agent Boyd be replaced with Saterlee Clark and lists the tribe’s complaints about Boyd.
September, 1838 – Dandy, Caramani, and Yellow Thunder go to Governor Henry Dodge. In council at Mineral Point, Dandy speaks at length about the tribe’s complaints about Agent Boyd and of the shameful tactics Boyd used to get the delegation to sign the treaty in Washington.
October 5, 1838 – One-eyed Decorah and Snake petition Governor Dodge to give them more time before removal. Their request for four years is rejected, but the government gives the nation one additional year beyond the original 8 months.
1839 – 30 Winnebago families are camped near the Coe family residence on the east shore of the Rock River seven miles above Watertown.
Early November, 1839 – A Winnebago camped on Neutral Ground is attacked by Sacs, leaving 20 people dead, 5 wounded and 2 are taken as prisoners.
1840 – The first forced Winnebago removal to Turkey River, Iowa occurs. They are moved by the Fifth and Eighth regiments of the U.S. Infantry to the so-called “Neutral Ground”. Two large boats transport the Winnebago down the Wisconsin River to Prairie du Chien.
Summer, 1840 – While in the midst of the removal, an epidemic of dysentery and fever kill an estimated 1,000 Winnebago.
August, 1840 – Yellow Thunder is preparing a war party at Winneshiek’s village with the help of Sioux allies to retaliate against the Sacs.
November 10, 1840 – A delegation of Winnebago goes to Mineral Point to council with Governor Dodge and tells him of the hardships the Winnebago are enduring.
1840’s – Spoon Decorah tells of hunting elk along the Black River and of trapping along the Roche-a-Cri River.
July 5, 1841 – Little Hill heads a delegation to talk to Agent Lowry at Ft. Atkinson. He argues against the president’s policy of punishing the treaty-abiding faction of the Winnebago Nation.
December, 1841 – Governor Doty proposes that the Winnebago give up their land in the Neutral Ground and move to a site on the St. Peter’s (Minnesota) River.
1842 – The population at Turkey River is 756.
Five Winnebago villages exist along the Root River in Minnesota at this time.
Many Winnebago girls are taken to the Menard Academy, a Catholic convent school in Kaskaskia, Illinois for a Catholic education.
1843 – Our Blessed Lady of the Seven Dolors Winnebago Mission is established. At this time, the principal band of Winnebago in the Neutral Ground is called the School Band and they occupy an area long the Turkey River.
Summer, 1843 – John Chambers, governor of Iowa Territory proposes another treaty to the Winnebago.
1844 – A company of Dragoons rounds up the stray Winnebago for removal to Iowa.
Captain Sumner goes to Portage to hunt for Dandy. Dandy is changed with an ox chain to his horse and demands to see Governor Dodge. Dandy asks the governor if the Bible was a good book. The governor replies that it is. Dandy responds, “Then if a man would do all that was in that book could any more be required of him?” The governor says, “No.” “Well,” says Dandy, “look that book all through and if you find in it that Dandy ought to be removed by the government to Turkey River, then I will go right off, but if you do not find it I will never go there to stay”.
1845 – Governor Henry Dodge once again unsuccessfully negotiates a removal treaty with the Winnebago. Winneshiek is made head chief at the Turkey River in Iowa.
October 13, 1846 – The Winnebago cede the “Neutral Grounds” area and end up (following the 1847 treaty) in land between the Sioux and their enemy the Chippewa in north central Minnesota. About 1,300 are removed to the Long Prairie area of Minnesota, just north of St. Cloud at this time.
Spring, 1847 – Winnebagos meet with the Ojibwa chief Hole-in-the-Day and he agrees to cede land for their occupancy in Long Prairie. Henry M. Rice selects the reservation site between the Long Prairie, Watab, Mississippi and Crow Wing Rivers in what was Wahnahta, later Toddy County, Minnesota. The Winnebago reserve becomes a buffer between the Chippewa and the Sioux who are hostile towards each other.
1848 – Our Blessed Lady of Seven Dolors mission closes.
Originally evolving from the Prairie du Chien Agency, which was established in 1807, the Winnebago sub agency becomes a full agency.
July, 1848 – About 620 Winnebago arrive at the reservation at Long Prairie and camp near the new agency; others remain near the Mississippi River.
Winter, 1848-49 – The Winnebago suffer from scurvy and would have starved at Long Prairie if the traders had not extended credit for them.
July, 1849 – Winneshiek journeys to St. Paul to confront Territorial Governor Alexander Ramsey about the terrible hardships the Winnebago have endured.
Little Hill says the Winnebago would like to shoot their agent, Jonathan Fletcher, who wrote earlier that the Winnebago were “well pleased and satisfied”.
1850 – Another 400 Winnebago who had remained in Iowa and Wisconsin are removed to Minnesota. Henry Schoolcraft’s census lists the number of Winnebago as 2,531 in twenty-one bands.
March 14, 1850 – Grand Council is held in St. Paul between the principal chiefs of the Winnebago, including One-eyed Decorah, Winneshiek, Big Canoe, Good Thunder, Little Dekora, Carimona, Little Hill, along with a number of Sioux, and Governor Alexander Ramsey.
May 3, 1850 – Henry M. Rice is appointed as the removal agent for the Winnebago.
May 16, 1850 – Captain Jim, a prominent leader of the Winnebagos in Minnesota, speaks about the need to educate the children.
1851 – Canon Fancis de Vivaldi arrives at Long Prairie, MN. Our Lady of Seven Dolors Chapel (mission) and a school are opened.
Spring, 1851 – J. E. Fletcher is removed and A.M. Fridley is appointed as agent to the Winnebago and Menomonee.
August 4, 1851 – Bishop Joseph Cretin, in a letter to Governor Ramsey, asks that he be allowed to establish a mission and school at Long Prairie.
In the same letter, the Bishop asks that Ramsey, “be divested from the religious prejudice” and support the Bishop’s request for an appropriation. Up until this time the school and mission were not connected.
1852 – Father De Vivaldi requests that the Sisters of St. Joseph of Carondelet come to Long Prairie to teach and administrate at his mission school.
The Sisters of St. Joseph of Carondelet from St. Paul, MN arrive at Long Prairie to teach in the school there.
July 29, 1852 – In a letter to Governor Ramsey, Fr. De Vivaldi asks that provisions and clothing be provided by the Agent for the students at the Winnebago school.
January 1, 1853 – The contract written for the Winnebago school and Long Prairie on this date is good for five years and includes a sum of $75 per pupil per year stipend to be not less than $2,000 per year for operating costs. Curriculum included English, reading writing, arithmetic, geography and manual art courses.
June 23, 1853 – The Winnebago, having troubles with the Ojibwa and Sioux, negotiate a treaty to exchange the Long Prairie reservation for land on the Crow and Mississippi River.
August 4,1853 – At a council held on the Watab River, Winneshiek and Little Hill request that the new reserve run east to the Mississippi River.
November 15, 1853 – Bishop Cretin threatens to “expose everything to the public by way of the press” in regards to the mishandling of the Winnebago money by their agent.
March 24, 1854 – Winnebagos expressed interest in moving southwest to the Missouri River, to be among the Otos and Omahas. George W. Manypenny, Commissioner of Indian Affairs estimates the Winnebago population at 1,480.
December, 1854 – Winnebago chiefs petition the president for a trip to Washington in hopes of being allowed to move from Long Prairie to a reserve southwest of the Missouri River (Nemaha Half-Breed Tract).
1855 – Winneshiek is head chief at the Winnebago village on the Turkey River in Iowa, where a county is named for him.
February 19, 1855 – Little Hill heads a delegation and speaks with Commissioner Manypenny. He explains that the Winnebago want a reserve south of the Minnesota River.
February 27, 1855 – A new treaty ushered in the Winnebago removal from their reservation in Long Prairie, MN to a fertile farming area near Blue Earth, Minnesota, in the south central part of the state.
May 5, 1855 – Winneshiek, Big Bear, Little Priest and others go to St. Paul after choosing their new reservation in Blue Earth, MN. Here they document their decision and begin to prepare for their next removal.
May 24, 1855 – Winnebagos begin their removal to Blue Earth with 300 canoes arriving in St. Anthony on this day.
June 2, 1855 – A mass meeting is held at Mankato to protest against relocating the Winnebago in Blue Earth County, Minnesota. Resolutions are passed and sent to congress.
1856 – Winnebago mission founded at Blue Earth and is attended by diocesan priests residing at St. Peter and Paul Church in Mankato.
January 8, 1856 – Little Hill and a number of other chiefs contact Governor Gorman to beg for aid. They had not been paid their annuities and were forced to go to Reverend Canon Francis de Vivaldi, the priest who operated their mission, for food and provisions.
January 12, 1856 – In a letter to Commissioner Manypenny, Little Hill lists the Winnebago’s complaints against Agent Fletcher and calls for his removal.
Early April, 1859 – A Winnebago delegation goes to Washington asking that they be allowed to remain on the Blue Earth Reserve, “where lie their children and friends, whose graves are yet green in their memory, without molestation or fear of being driven thence by their remorseless neighbor, the white man”.
April 18, 1859 – Baptiste LaSallieur, in a letter to President James Buchanan, reminds the president of the money owed to the tribe and tells him, in part, “You want us, father, to act like white men, and we want to tell you that it requires a great deal of money to do so”.
May, 1859 – Winneshiek refuses a medal during a council with William J. Cullen, Superintendent of Indian Affairs in Minnesota, and is deposed as head chief. Baptiste is appointed to the position.
1860 – The Winnebago pass a code of laws dealing with stabbing, stealing, and drunkenness. 260 cases of small pox are reported this year, with 43 fatalities. Schooling begins with 62 males and 48 females enrolled on the Blue Earth reserve.
June 25, 1861 – Little Hill, in a council with Superintendent Thompson, complains about Agent Balcombe and pleads for the money owed the tribe. The money would not be given until the tribe had received their land allotments and the rest of the reserve sold to white settlers. The money amounted to about $300,000.
Summer, 1861 – Winneshiek, a staunch opponent to the allotment of the Blue Earth Reserve, obstructs the surveys of the reservation lands.
October18, 1861 – Blue Earth Reservation census shows 2,106 Winnebago living in Blue Earth and Waseca Counties in Minnesota.
November 26, 1861 – Captain Jim, a Winnebago chief, freezes to death while on his way home from Mankato. He had fought for the U.S. in the War of 1812 and in the Black Hawk War.
1862 – Winnebago circumstances have diminished to a horrible state. The promised allotments were never completed and the Winnebago are surrounded by hostile and unfriendly white people.
March 10, 1862 – Little Priest testifies that Balcombe had been corrupt in many dealings with the Winnebago. Allegations include buying items for his personal use with annuity money and missing large numbers of people in his census.
April, 1862 – Agent Balcombe is charged with corruption in the selling of Winnebago annuity goods back to the trading firm of Hubbell and Hawley.
June, 1862 – The “Sioux Massacre” frightens local citizens so much that they begin to call for the next removal of all Indians in the area.
January, 1863 – Settlers organize a secret society called the Knights of the Forest in Mankato to bring about the removal of the Winnebagos. “A secret order called the Knights of the Forest was formed by two men from Mankato and one from Garden city, for the express purpose of the removal of the Winnebago and all Indians from the state of Minnesota. The Knights grew to considerable size to include many of the most prominent and influential men of …both political parties. One noteworthy act of the Mankato lodge… was the employment of a certain number of men whose duty it was to lie in ambush on the outskirts of the Winnebago reservation and shoot any Indian who might be observed outside the lines…” – Blue Earth County Historical Society Review, April 27, 1886.
February 21, 1863 – A special Act of Congress approving the removal of Wisconsin Winnebago to Crow Creek Reserve in South Dakota becomes law.
April 25, 1863 – Winnebagos are officially notified of their next removal by Agent Balcombe.
May 2, 1863 – The total number of Winnebago is listed as 1,856. About 40 Winnebagos apply for citizenship in Waseca District Court, but Judge Donaldson refuses their applications.
May 2, 1863 – The total number of Winnebago is listed as 1,856. About 40 Winnebagos apply for citizenship in Waseca District Court, but Judge Donaldson refuses their applications.
May 5, 1863 – The first group of Winnebago arrives at Mankato to await their next removal.
May 9, 1863 – About 1,000 Winnebago are reluctantly staying at Camp Porter in Mankato awaiting removal. The first boat load of Winnebago leaves Mankato for their new Dakota reservation. The steamers Canada and Davenport transport about 1,200 Winnebago to Hannibal, MO for the first leg of the journey. The boats take 300-400 people on each, they are only meant to hold about 100.
May 23, 1863 – Winneshiek and about 800 tribal members arrive in Mankato. At Ft. Snelling, Winneshiek and Wakon Decorah ask General Henry Sibley to write a letter requesting that the land Winneshiek received from Wabasha in 1848 could be exchanged for a reserve on the Chippewa River in western Wisconsin.
June 8, 1863 – The first Winnebago arrives at Crow Creek after taking a slow trip up the Missouri River aboard the West Wind. The route from Mankato was down the Minnesota River to the Mississippi River, from the Mississippi up the Missouri River to Usher’s Landing.
June 9, 1863 – Reverend John P. Williamson reports that the daily ration at Crow Creek is less than one-quarter pound each of flour, pork, and corn.
June 24, 1863 – About 750 Winnebago arrive at Crow Creek after being transported separately. The total number of Winnebago at Crow Creek amounts to about 1,950.
July, 1863 – General Alfred Sully relays the Winnebago complaints to Secretary of the Interior John P. Usher. Sully suggests that removal to the Ohama reserve in Nebraska would be both humane and economical.
August 7, 1863 – Winneshiek again makes an appeal to the president, asking this time for the land given by Wabasha on the Root River.
August 8, 1863 – Superintendent Thompson leaves Crow Creek for Washington to make arrangements for provisions for the winter and to transfer the Winnebago annuity money.
October 1, 1863 – Great dissatisfaction is reported among the Winnebagos at their new agency in Dakota. Many have already left, destitute and starving, going down the Missouri River in canoes.
Fall, 1863 – Baptiste LaSallieur, in council with Superintendent Thompson says, in part, “We are not afraid to die, but we do not wish to die here”.
October, 1863 – The St. Paul Daily Press calls the movement of Winnebago across the northern plains a follhardy as Napoleon’s invasion of Russia. The Press refers to it as the “Moscow Campaign” which later becomes known as the “Moscow Expedition”.
March 1, 1864 – All Winnebagos except approximately 200 have left their agency in Dakota.
May, 1864 – Approximately 1,200 Winnebago are at the Omaha Reservation in Nebraska.
June, 1864 – Robert W. Furnas, Omaha Agent, reports that the Winnebagos on his reserve are starving and need immediate assistance.
August 1, 1864 – Twenty-two Winnebago enlist in Company C, Nebraska Veteran Battalion and twenty-four in Company D.
September, 1864 – Superintendent Thompson arrives for council and the chiefs report that they left the Crow Creek Reserve because they were surrounded by hostile Sioux, much the same as the situation had been at Long Prairie.
December 10, 1864 – Baptiste LaSallieur is permitted to return to Blue Earth County, Minnesota and re-occupy his farm with his family.
December 30, 1864 – Most of the Winnebagos have by now left the Crow Creek Reserve.
1861-1865 – There were about 100 Winnebago warriors who served as soldiers during the four years of the Civil War.
1865 – Little Priest and 71 other Winnebago enlist in Company A, Omaha Scouts at Decatur, Nebraska.
March 6, 1865 – Treaty of land cessions in Dakota Territory include the purchase of the northern portion of the Omaha reservation in Nebraska for the Winnebago.
November 15, 1865 – The Winnebago officially relocate to the Omaha Reserve in Nebraska.
1866 – Act to Increase and Fix the Military Peace Establishment of the United States includes a clause authorizing the president to enlist a force of Native Americans.
August 1, 1866 – General Order from the office of the Adjutant General implementing the provision of the above act. Colonel Carrington began efforts to enlist Winnebagos and Pawnees for service on the Bozeman Trail.
Late 1860’s – Earliest settlement of Winnebago at Watermill was under Chief Ah-oo-cho-ka or Blue Wing and was located a few miles north of Tomah, WI.
August 19, 1867 – Winnebagos population is at 1,672.
May 29, 1870 – Act to have patents issued to every Winnebago Indian lawfully residing in Minnesota on June 15, 1870 if an allotment had not been received as provisions of treaty of April 15, 1829 is passed.
October 11, 1870 – Fifty-one Winnebago (men and women), most of whom were half blood, are naturalized at the U.S. District Court by Judge Nelson in St. Paul, Minnesota. The purpose of their naturalization is to secure their right to obtain patents from the United States on land which they were allotted on their former reservation in Blue Earth County, Minnesota. Only 23 Winnebago had purchased land in Minnesota.
1872 – Last attempt by the U.S. government to remove the Winnebago people from Wisconsin.
The removal attempt takes place during the winter, exposing the Winnebago to dangerous conditions.
Reports of atrocities begin to surface and the public outcry is so great that the government never attempts another removal.
May 29, 1872 – A congressional act supplementary to the Act of July 15, 1870 appropriates another $36,000 for the removal of the Winnebago.
1873 – The Winnebago population stands at 2,500.
March 3, 1873 – An Act of Congress passes this day providing relief of the Winnebagos. Although this act provided for regular annual payments, these payments do not begin until ten years later.
June, 1873 – Council is held with Governor C.C. Washburn. Governor Washburn recommends the Wisconsin Winnebago go to Indian Territory and warns the chiefs that they would have to leave in the fall. Short Wing asks for a reserve at the head of the Black River.
November 19, 1873 – Grey Wolf and the Nebraska chiefs send a message to Congress charging the Wisconsin Bands with abandonment of the tribe. They state that they did not “…want to be made poorer by the removal of the Wisconsin Indians amongst us…” and ask Congress to increase their funding.
December 12, 1873 – Company C, 20th Infantry and a detachment from Company H are ordered to proceed from Ft. Snelling to Sparta, WI to provide military assistance in the removal of the Winnebagos.
December 18, 1873 – Lt. Stafford, with twenty men and Capt. Hunt, capture eighty-six Winnebagos, “on the Baraboo River, near the Crawford Bridge”. They are lodged in Sparta to await the train which would ship them to Nebraska.
December 22, 1873 – The eighty-six Winnebago, including Big Hawk, are sent west to Nebraska on the 11 am train. They are accompanied by Sheriff David Bon and six others. Many die on the way and others die of exposure once reaching Nebraska.
December 23, 1873 – Charles A Hunt captures Shaking of the Earth (Caramani) and Yankee Bill with seventy-one other Winnebagos at Leroy Station; they too are sent west.
December 25, 1873 – Fifty-six Winnebagos are captured in Trempealeau County.
Early 1875 – The Wisconsin Winnebagos petition the government to allow them to become United States citizens.
March 3, 1875 – An Act of Congress approved on this day, provides that any Indian head of household who is over twenty-one and has abandoned “tribal relations” (meaning the so-called renegade bands) should be entitled to benefits of the Homestead Act of May 20, 1862. This act also guarantees that any Indian homesteader can share in tribal annuities, funds, lands, and other property.
February, 1876 – Black Hawk and Short Wing ask John St. Cyr to help them obtain the right to homestead land for eighty Winnebago at Black River Falls, WI. Following this action, most of the Wisconsin Winnebago file for forty acre homesteads.
1880 – The Wisconsin Winnebago are once again able to share in the annuities. Up until this time, the U.S. government viewed the nation as a “renegade band” and gave annuities only to the Nebraska Agency.
January 18, 1881 – An Act of Congress approved on this day, directs the Secretary of the Interior to have separate censuses taken of the Winnebago in Wisconsin and Nebraska and adjust the accounts between the two nations.
1881 – Special legislation passes permitting Wisconsin Winnebago 40 acre homesteads. They are not given clear patent to their land for twenty years and could not sell it until then. The first Winnebago to homestead is known only as “Indian George”. By this time 1,200 Winnebago are living in Wisconsin.
1883 – The census of the Wisconsin Winnebago is completed.
Chiefs of the Iowa tell Owen Dorsey that the Iowa, Oto, Missouria, Omaha and Ponca, “… once formed part of the Winnebago Nation,” and they each came with the Winnebago from an original home north of the Great Lakes.
November, 1883 – There are just over 1,100 people on the Winnebago enrollment.
1884 – Norwegian Lutheran mission and boarding school establishes four miles from Wittenberg, WI.
1886 – The Commissioner of Indian Affairs recommends that a government agent be placed in charge of the Winnebagos in Wisconsin.
1886-1887 – Fifty-six births and thirty deaths are reported among the Winnebago.
1887 – Reuben Gold Thwaites of the State Historical Society of Wisconsin comes to Tomah to gather information about the Winnebago. He finds that they had been granted homesteads and most of the land had proved to be barren hillsides or tamarack swamps. Few of the Winnebagos even know where their land is located.
February, 1887 – The Winnebago population reaches 1,400.
March 29, 1887 – Spoon Decorah, in an interview with Moses Paquette says, “We think the Big Father does not care for us any longer, now that he has all our best land. Perhaps it will not be long before he will wan the poor land we now live in. Then we must go to the reservation in Nebraska”.
1888 – Federal statute authorizes the sale of a portion of the Winnebago Reservation in Nebraska.
1890 – Black Ash Basketry is introduced to the Winnebago.
January 19, 1893 – The Tomah Industrial School opens with seven employees and seven students.
1894 – Recorded as the last Winnebago burial on Lake Koshkonog, Moses Decorah’s son is buried in a traditional ceremony in Sumner Township.
1895 – Federal Statute for the relief of Winnebago Indians in Minnesota.
Bethany Mission School at Wittenberg opens.
September, 1898 – Wisconsin Winnebagos participate in the cranberry harvest near Valley Junction, Wood County.
1900 – Peyote religion is introduced to Wisconsin Indians.
1901 – The first commencement takes place at the Tomah Indian Industrial School with five children graduating. A government boarding school opens on the Winnebago reserve in Nebraska.
January 26, 1907 – C.F. Larabee, Acting Commissioner of Indian Affairs, writes, “The Winnebago as a tribe have due them $883,249.58 under their treaties of 1837 and the act of July 15, 1870”. Eventually the Wisconsin branch receives its share of the principal after it has been capitalized and segregated.
1911 – The Tomah Indian Industrial School is made the Winnebago Agency.
1912 – Population estimated for the Winnebago Nation in Wisconsin at 1,180 and in Nebraska at 2,613.
1914 – Winnebagos receive their last payment of annuities.
1924 – The Winnebagos and all other Indian Nations are granted full United States citizenship.
1934 – Indian Reorganization Act.
1935 – Tomah Industrial School closes in June. Children are farmed out in a kind of foster care situation. All employees are gone by July 1st.
July, 1937 – On the George P. Bennett Marsh, near the Watermill area, Winnebagos return annually to work the cranberry marsh. Many are descended from his first employees who worked for the company many years ago.
1937 – Cranberry Harvest Festival Champion is Jesse Mike this year.
1938 – Cranberry Harvest Festival Champion is Ralph Mann.
1939 – Three of the finalists in the Cranberry Harvest Festival this year are Jesse Mike, Ralph Mann, and George Whitewing.
1941-1945 – The thirty dead or wounded Winnebago in the armed forces are members of the Indian Mission Church.
1941 – Winnebago Handcraft Cooperative is established by Reverend Ben Stucki.
February 13, 1945 – The title of the Tomah Indian Industrial School is transferred to the Veteran’s Admission for hospital use.
1946 – Indian Claims Commission Act.
1947 – Reverend Mitchell Whiterabbit accepts the call as a pastor for the Indian Mission Church.
1949 – Tribal reorganization begins when Nebraska and Wisconsin Winnebago agree to bring a common claim before the Indian Claims Commission.
February, 1949 – The Winnebago Veteran’s Organization organizes under a State of Wisconsin charter.
1961 – Claims Committee provisionally reconstitutes as the acting Wisconsin Winnebago Business Committee. This group begins to investigate organizing under the Indian Reorganization Act.
1962 – The Wisconsin Winnebago Tribal Constitution is written.
1962-63 – Census taken by Superintendent of the Bureau of Indian Affairs and the tribal secretary determine that there are 494 eligible to vote in the first election under the reorganization.
January 9, 1963 – There is a referendum regarding reorganization of the tribe.
June 8, 1963 – The first election of officers takes place.
September 14, 1963 – The first General Council election is held.
November 1, 1963 – Grant from the Department of Health, Education and Welfare is received.
1964 – Pow-wow Grounds
1965 – Indian Mission property
1966 – Indian Heights Housing Site
1970 – Indian Claims Commission approves Winnebago claim for $4.6 million.
1971 – Blue Wing Village, named in honor of Chief Ah-oo-cho-ka, Blue Wing, is built near Wyeville. The village includes 32 acres of land and about 20 homes.
1976 – Sand Pillow Housing Site
1980 – Ho-Chunk Casino and C-Store property
1982 – Baraboo Smoke shop and DeJope Bingo property
1983 – Tomah Smoke shop (now Whitetail Crossing), Black River Falls Smoke shop (now Whitetail Crossing), and Ho-Chunk Bingo.
1985 – Tomah C-Store property
1986 – Contract Health Office
1988 – Farnum Center property
1989 – Executive Building property and Tribal Courts property
1990 – Language Division property (Mauston)
1992 – Gaming Compact with Wisconsin
1993 – Majestic Pines, Rainbow Bingo and Casino, and Ho-Chunk Grand Openings
Rainbow Gift Shop
Ho-Chunk Gift Shop
Properties: Christianson (Shawano County), location of Ho-Chunk North C-Store
1994 – Chakh Hah Chee Child Care Center complete
Ho-Chunk casino/Bingo Re-Opening
Ho-Chunk Lodge opens
Ho-Chunk North facility complete
Properties: Muscoda, O’Connor, Schrank and Potch-ha-Chee, Records Management
November 1, 1994 – Wisconsin Winnebago officially adopt their new constitution which changes the name to the Ho-Chunk Sovereign Nation. Ho-Chunk is the name we call ourselves. The BIA recognizes the New Constitution.
Fall, 1995 – The Ho-Chunk Nation departments move into their new office building in Black River Falls, WI. Three Rivers House (former Masonic Temple, La Crosse) is acquired via grant application. Tomah Whitetail Crossing is completed.
Properties: Mortenson, Timber Run and Parmenter
1996 – District I Community Center renovation is completed.
Chakh Hah Chee Elder center is completed.
New Majestic Pines Grand Opening
Properties: Rockland and Nine Eagles
1997 – Winnebago Heights Elder Center is completed. Indian Mission Elder Center is completed.
Wazee Wastewater Treatment Site.
Crockett’s Resort is purchased.
Properties: Mueller, Garvin/King of Thunder
1998 – Hocak Construction
Four Winds Insurance is established.
Ho-Chunk Casino Water Tower
New wastewater treatment plant at Ho-Chunk Village.
New water system for Chakh Hah Chee Village and Rainbow Casino
Majestic Pines Hotel is completed.
Properties: Christensen (Jackson County)
1999 –Three Rivers House renovations are completed.
Wonk Sheek Warehouse is completed.
Majestic Pines expansion is completed.
House of Wellness
Ho-Chunk Casino expansion is completed.
Properties: Kickapoo Valley reserve, Whirling Thunder, Hurley and Ho-Chunk Cinema property is acquired (Tomah), Leassum, and East Sand Pillow.
2000 – Ho-Chunk Casino Hotel & Convention Center is completed.
HCC Wo Za Wa, Copper Oak and Buffet is completed.
Baraboo Whitetail Crossing is completed.
HCC Sunrise Café is completed.
2002 – 10 Year Strategic Plan is approved.
Ho-Chunk Distribution Center is completed.
Veterans Service Office opens.
Records Management Building is completed.
Ho-Chunk Health Care Center is completed.
Properties: Ruxton, Miers
2003 – Andrew Blackhawk Legion Post building is completed.
Rainbow C-Store is completed.
Ho-Chunk Cinemas opens.
Trial Court (Judicial Center) is completed.
Properties: Plum Creek, Red Banks
2004 – Whitetail Crossing Casino, Tomah
2005 – Ho-Chunk Village, 36 Multi-family units are completed.
2006 – Food Distribution Building is completed.
West Pow-wow Grounds
2007 – Kingsley Bend Mounds
Sanford White Eagle Legion Post Building is completed.
2008 – Sand Pillow Head Start is completed.
Blue Wing Elder Center is completed.
Wittenberg Elder Center is completed.
Ho-Chunk Casion Aquatic Center is completed.
Wittenberg Ancillary Site is started.
For more information regarding the History of the Ho-Chunk Nation, please contact:
Cultural Resources Division Office
W9815 Airport Road
Black River Falls, WI 54615
Telephone: (715) 284-7181
Fax: (715) 284-7449